Thursday, June 29, 2006

Rugosa Rose

Rugosa Rose or Japanese Rose (Rosa rugosa) is a rose native to eastern Asia, in northeastern China, Japan, Korea and southeastern Siberia, where it grows on the coast, often on sand dunes. The Japanese name is (ハマナス(hamanasu)), meaning "shore pear".
It is a suckering shrub which develops new plants from the roots and forms dense thickets 1–1.50 m tall with stems densely covered in numerous short, straight thorns 3-10 mm long. The leaves are 8–15 cm long, pinnate with 5–9 leaflets, most often 7, each leaflet 3–4 cm long, with a distinctly corrugated (rugose, hence the species' name) surface. The flowers are pleasantly scented, dark pink to white, 6–9 cm across, with somewhat wrinkled petals; flowering is from summer to autumn (June to September in the northern hemisphere).
The edible hips are large, 2–3 cm diameter, and often shorter than their diameter, not elongated like most other rose hips; in late summer and early autumn the plants often bear fruit and flowers at the same time. The leaves typically turn bright yellow before falling in autumn.
[edit]Cultivation and usesRugosa Rose is widely used as an ornamental plant. It has been introduced to numerous areas of Europe and North America. It has many common names, several of which refer to the fruit's resemblance to a tomato, including beach tomato or sea tomato; saltspray rose and beach rose are others.
The sweetly scented flowers are used to make pot-pourri in Japan and China, where it has been cultivated for about a thousand years.
Rugosa rose hybridises readily with many other roses, and is valued by rose breeders for its considerable resistance to the diseases rose rust and rose black spot. It is also extremely tolerant of seaside salt spray and storms, commonly being the first shrub in from the coast. It is widely used in landscaping, being relatively tough and trouble-free. Needing little maintenance, it is suitable for planting in large numbers; its salt-tolerance makes it useful for planting beside roads which need deicing regularly.


Cultivation and uses of Sampaguita Flowers- It is widely grown throughout the tropics as an ornamental plant for its strongly scented flowers. Numerous cultivars have been selected, including some with double flowers.
It is the national flower of the Philippines, adopted by the Philippine government in 1937. In the Philippines, the flowers are picked and made into necklaces and oils that are sold in stores, streets, and in churches. People in the Philippines use garlands of this flower to hang on religious images in home altars and churches..
Besides the Philippines, it is also the national flower of Indonesia, which was adopted by Indonesian government in 1990 along with Moon Orchid (Phalaenopsis amabilis) and Rafflesia arnoldii. In Indonesia, the flower symbolizes purity, eternal love and noble. It is also symbolizes the beauty of a girl. The flower commonly used in religious or cultural manner especially in Java and Bali. It is nicknamed puspa bangsa (nation flower or people flower) by the government.

Rosa Canina (Dog Rose)

The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip. Rose species that produce open-faced flowers are attractive to pollinating bees and other insects, thus more apt to produce hips. Many of the domestic cultivars are so tightly petalled that they do not provide access for pollination. The hips of most species are red, but a few (e.g. Rosa pimpinellifolia) have dark purple to black hips. Each hip comprises an outer fleshy layer, the hypanthium, which contains 5–160 "seeds" (technically dry single-seeded fruits called achenes) embedded in a matrix of fine, but stiff, hairs. Rose hips of some species, especially the Dog Rose (Rosa canina) and Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa), are very rich in vitamin C, among the richest sources of any plant. The hips are eaten by fruit-eating birds such as thrushes and waxwings, which then disperse the seeds in their droppings. Some birds, particularly finches, also eat the seeds.
Most roses have thorns or prickles. The thorns are typically sickle-shaped hooks, which aid the rose in hanging onto other vegetation when growing over it. Some species such as Rosa rugosa and R. pimpinellifolia instead have densely packed straight spines, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but also possibly an adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these two species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes). Despite the presence of the thorns, roses are frequently browsed by deer. A few species of roses only have vestigial thorns that have no points.
Roses are subject to several diseases. The most serious is rose rust (Phragmidium mucronatum), a species of rust fungus, which can defoliate the plant. More common, though less debilitating, are rose black spot [1], caused by the fungus Diplocarpon rosae, which makes circular black spots on the leaves in summer, and powdery mildew, caused by Sphaerotheca pannosa. Roses are also used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species; see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Roses.
These fungal diseases are best solved by a preventative spray program rather than by trying to cure an infection after it is visible.


Bougainvillea is a genus of flowering plants native to the tropical and subtropical regions of South America from Brazil west to Peru and south to southern Argentina (Chubut Province). Different authors accept between four and 18 species in the genus. Its name comes from Louis Antoine de Bougainville, an admiral in the French Navy who discovered the plant in Brazil in 1768.

They are thorny, woody, vines growing to 1-12 m tall, scrambling over other plants with the hooked thorns. They are evergreen where rainfall occurs all year, or deciduous in the dry season. The leaves are alternate, simple ovate-acuminate, 4-13 cm long and 2-6 cm broad. The actual flower of the plant is small and generally white, but each cluster of three flowers is surrounded by three or six bracts with the bright colors associated with the plant, including pink, magenta, purple, red, orange, white, or yellow. Bougainvillea glabra is sometimes referred to as "paper flower" because the bracts are thin and papery. The fruit is a narrow five-lobed achene.

Cultivation and uses
Bougainvillea are popular plants in California, south Texas, Florida, the Caribbean, South Africa, Australia, and other areas with warm climates.

Numerous cultivars and hybrids have been selected, including nearly thornless shrubs. Some Bougainvillea cultivars are sterile, and are propagated from cuttings.

Bougainvillea are rapid growing and flower all year in warm climates, especially when pinched or pruned. Bloom cycles are typically four to six weeks. Bougainvillea grow best in very bright full sun and with frequent fertilization, but the plant requires little water to flower. As indoor houseplants in temperate regions, they can be kept small by bonsai techniques. If overwatered, Bougainvillea will not flower and may lose leaves or wilt, or even die from root decay.

Tuesday, June 27, 2006

Dahlia pink

Dahlia is a genus of bushy, summer- and autumn-flowering, tuberous perennials that are originally from Mexico, where they are the national flower.

In 1872 a box of Dahlia roots were sent from Mexico to the Netherlands. Only one plant survived the trip, but produced spectacular red flowers with pointed petals. Nurserymen bred from this plant, which was named Dahlia juarezii with parents of Dahlias discovered earlier and these are the progenitors of all modern Dahlia hybrids. Ever since, plant breeders have been actively breeding Dahlias to produce hundreds of cultivars, usually chosen for their stunning and brightly coloured flowers.

Dahlias are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Angle Shades, Common Swift, Ghost Moth and Large Yellow Underwing.

The dahlia is named after Swedish 18th-century botanist Anders Dahl.

The dahlia is the official flower of the city of Seattle.

Monday, June 26, 2006


Hibiscus or Rosemallow is a large genus of about 200-220 species of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae, native to warm temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. The genus includes both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, and woody shrubs and small trees. The leaves are alternate, simple, ovate to lanceolate, often with a toothed or lobed margin. The flowers are large, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped, with five petals, ranging from white to pink, red, purple or yellow, and from 4-15 cm broad. The fruit is a dry five-lobed capsule, containing several seeds in each lobe, which are released when the capsule splits open at maturity.

Friday, June 23, 2006

Lantana Camara

Lantana Camara, from the West Indies, its varieties are shrubby, spreading perennials which will bloom the year around if they received sufficient sunlight and moisture. The flowers are borne in dense heads, about 2 inches, across, usually creamy yellow or deep yellow aging to orange and red.

The temperature, averge house not over 75 "F. , in winter. Humidity is 30% more, mist leaves frequently with water to prevent drying and to discourage insect infections. Soil, equal parts loam, sand, and peat moss; keep moist except slightly drier during the dead of winter when the top growth should be cut back to 8 inches or less. Propagate by rooting, cuttings in spring, summer or fall.

Thursday, June 22, 2006

Gulf Fritillary Flowers

The Gulf Fritillary, Agraulis vanillae, a striking, bright orange butterfly of the family Nymphalidae and
sub-family . It was formerly classified in a separate family, the Heliconiidae or longwing butterflies, and like other longwings it does have long, rather narrow wings in comparison with other butterflies. It is not closely related to the true fritillaries. It is a medium to large butterfly, with a wingspan of from 6 to 9.5 cm. Its underwings are buff, with large silvery spots. It takes its name from the fact that migrating flights of the butterflies are sometimes seen over the Gulf of

The Gulf Fritillary is commonly seen in parks and gardens, as well as in open country. Its range extends from Argentina through Central America Mexico, and the West Indies to the southern United_States States, as far north as the San Francisco Bay Area on the west coast. It is occasionally found further north in the US.

The larva or caterpillar of the gulf fritillary grows to approximately 4 cm in length and is bright orange in color and covered in rows of black spines on its head and back. The spines are soft to the touch and do not sting. However, the larva are poisonous if eaten, as the bright coloration advertises. The larva feed exclusively on various species of passionflower such as maypop. Passiflora incarnata, the yellow passionflower Passiflora lutea and their toxic flesh provides gulf fritillary caterpillars with excellent protection from predators. Birds avoid them. Some specialized insects have been observed feeding on them,however, and larger caterpillars sometimes eat smaller ones. The chrysalis is approximately 3 cm long; it is mottled brown and looks like a dry leaf. Cultivation of the passionflower in gardens has enabled the gulf fritillary to extend its range, for example into new areas of southern California.

Friday, June 16, 2006

Chrysanthemum Flowers

Chrysanthemum is a genus of about 30 species of perennial flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, native to Asia and northeastern Europe. Amongst florists and in the floral industry, they are commonly referred to as "mums".
The genus once included many more species, but was split several decades ago into several genera; the naming of the genera has been contentious, but a ruling of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature in 1999 has resulted in the defining species of the genus being changed to Chrysanthemum indicum, thereby restoring the economically important florist's chrysanthemum to the genus Chrysanthemum. These species were, after the splitting of the genus but before the ICBN ruling, commonly treated under the genus name Dendranthema.
The other species previously treated in the narrow view of the genus Chrysanthemum are now transferred to the genus Glebionis. The other genera split off from Chrysanthemum include Argyranthemum, Leucanthemopsis, Leucanthemum, Rhodanthemum, and Tanacetum.
The species of Chrysanthemum are herbaceous perennial plants growing to 50-150 cm tall, with deeply lobed leaves and large flowerheads, white, yellow or pink in the wild species.
Chrysanthemum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species - see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Chrysanthemum

Thursday, June 15, 2006

Yellow Chamomile

Anthemis tinctoria, or Yellow Chamomile, is a species in the genus Anthemis of the Sunflower family (Asteraceae).
This popular flower has several common names : Golden Marguerite, Marguerite Daisy, Dyer's Chamomile, Ox-eye Chamomile, Boston Daisies, Paris Daisies.
It is a short-lived biennal, occurring in the Mediterranean and western Asia. It has aromatic, bright green, feathery foliage. The serrate leaves are bi-pinnatifid ( finely divided) and downy beneath. It grows to a height of 60 cm.
It has yellow daisy-like terminal flowers on long thin angular stems, blooming in profusion during the summer.
It has no culinary or commercial uses and only limited medicinal uses. However, it produces an excellent yellow, buff and golden-orange dye, used in the past for fabrics